By Peter W. Hawkes, E. Kasper
This can be a entire instruction manual and reference quantity which covers every little thing that one must learn about electron optics. it's a entire assurance of theoretical historical past and sleek computing equipment. It encompasses a certain and particular account of numerical equipment and an in depth bibliography.
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Additional info for Principles of Electron Optics, Three Volume Set: Principles of Electron Optics: Basic Geometrical Optics
1 T h e L a g r a n g e f o r m a l i s m In charged particle dynamics the integrand L, the Lagrangian, takes the form L = moc2(1 - ~/1 - ~ ) + Q ( v . g. Goldstein, 1959). 4) These relations do not provide a unique definition of the potentials; in other words, the same field vectors E and B may be obtained from different sets of potentials. 5. Since only E and B have physical significance, but not ~ and A, the results of all calculations should be presented in a gauge-invariant form. 6) 36 4. V A R I A T I O N A L P R I N C I P L E S since this closely resembles the familiar classical form L = T - V.
Part l Classical Mechanics This Page Intentionally Left Blank 2 Relativistic Kinematics In the following sections we shall examine the motion of a charged particle of rest mass m0 and charge Q in an electromagnetic field characterized by the electric and magnetic field vectors E(r, t) and B(r, t), respectively. Whenever the specialization Q = - e < 0 for electrons is not made explicitly, the analysis is valid for the motion of any charged particle. The derivation of useful trajectory equations for the motion of charged particles--and of all conservation laws satisfied by them--can be performed in a very general and elegant manner by means of variational calculus, as we shall show in Chapter 4.
The foregoing account evokes the main steps in electron optical instrumentation for image formation. Many other innovations might have been listed: the development of new types of gun (lanthanum hexaboride and field emission) and the introduction of various types of energy filter and analyser, in particular the focusing device of Castaing and Henry (1962). We now turn to the theory of the subject and single out the principal contributions. We have already mentioned the role of Busch in the founding of geometrical electron optics.
Principles of Electron Optics, Three Volume Set: Principles of Electron Optics: Basic Geometrical Optics by Peter W. Hawkes, E. Kasper