Download e-book for iPad: A Critique of Nicotine Addiction (Neurobiological Foundation by Hanan Frenk

By Hanan Frenk

ISBN-10: 0306472325

ISBN-13: 9780306472329

ISBN-10: 0792372255

ISBN-13: 9780792372257

Nicotine is sort of universally believed to be the foremost issue that motivates smoking and impedes cessation. specialists similar to the general practitioner common of america and the Royal university of Physicians within the united kingdom have declared that nicotine is as addictive as heroin and cocaine. This booklet is a critique of the nicotine dependancy speculation, in line with a serious assessment of the study literature that purports to turn out that nicotine is as addictive drug. The assessment is predicated on a second look of greater than seven hundred articles and books in this topic, together with animal and human experimental reviews, results of `nicotine alternative therapies', and plenty of different proper assets. This evaluation concludes that on current facts, there's each cause to reject the widely permitted conception that nicotine has a massive function in cigarette smoking. A severe exam of the standards for drug dependancy demonstrates that none of those standards is met via nicotine, and that it's more likely that nicotine in truth limits particularly than enables smoking.

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Extra info for A Critique of Nicotine Addiction (Neurobiological Foundation of Aberrant Behaviors)

Example text

They make life easier, if not possible, but every shortcut has a cost. The main cost of habits, as far as this book is concerned, is that they are resistant to change. Once behavior has been assigned to automatic processing, it is difficult to get it back under conscious control. When we perform something automatically, such as washing our hands, we are no longer aware of the steps that are involved in the process. Once these activities have become habits, they have functionally become a single unit of behavior which is no longer easy to modify.

This explanation would not hold, of course, for illegal “old-timers” such as cocaine, heroin, or cannabis. A second point of interest is the high continuation rate for the legal drugs, alcohol and tobacco. The consumption of alcohol in Amsterdam is widespread (86% of the population used alcohol at least once during their life and 69% used alcohol during the month preceding the survey) although most drinkers (78%) consumed less than 3 glasses per day. The authors of the survey concluded, on the basis of these data, that “Drinking alcohol is clearly an established habit in Amsterdam.

Unlike other behavioral definitions, however, this definition does require that the drug should possess psychoactive effects and reinforcing properties, which are two of the primary criteria for addiction (other properties of the drug, such as physical dependence and tolerance, are not required). At the same time, the drug’s psychoactive effects are not specified, and are not causally related to its “highly controlled or compulsive use,” “stereotopic patterns of use,” or “ use despite harmful effects.

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A Critique of Nicotine Addiction (Neurobiological Foundation of Aberrant Behaviors) by Hanan Frenk

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