By Alan Campbell Wares
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Additional info for A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism
L 'hand', smâ- 'to sleep', maçyé 'fear', xamçi 'star', ckós 'small', yak'í-f 'music' ; /χ/ xâ 'water', xamúk 'three', laxœ 'bitter', paxkây 'seven', ηάχ 'to kill' ; /x w / xwdt 'red', xwiw 'skunk', maxwd 'pig', paxwây 'to become angry' ; /x/ xikwiru 'whirlwind', ναχά 'guts', 5όχ 'cough'. The nasal series in Paipai is the same as that in other languages of the Yuman family. Examples: /m/ mi"foot', mafd'y 'onion', çmœ 'to sleep', vamds ' t e n \ p é m 'no', nyœm 'day' ; /η/ ηάχ 'to kill', vanún 'belly', xnàl 'gourd rattle', χάη 'good', mún 'cold' ; /ny/ nyd~ 'sun', nyixami 'husband', sanyé 'pretty', tinHr 'to write', xmäri» 'baby', mány 'to wither'.
Further investigation may disclose that the glottal stop occurs non-phonemically in Paipai, as it does in English, but it is posited as a phoneme here for purposes of comparison. It occurs initially before both vowels and consonants. g. 'ox 'cough'. ρά· or >ρά 'man, person'. In these instances the glottal stop could perhaps be conconsidered a feature of juncture. Another way in which Paipai differs from Tipai and Cocopa and resembles the northern Yuman languages is the presence of the voiced bilabial spirant /v/, which has a stop allophone following the bilabial nasal : xamvér [xambér] 'snake'.
D uráw) 'hot'. The voiceless alveolar grooved spirant /s/ occurs initially in smfr 'sinew', sapó 'to know'; medially in naskó· 'girl', maspât 'to extinguish'; finally in yné's 'scorpion', ciwá's 'mosquito'. In cognates it corresponds to both P /s/ (W, Mo /Θ/) and Ρ /§/; cf. hmâ s'áwi (Ρ masáw) 'chicken', maspât (Mo tamaOpác) 'to extinguish', masP (Ρ xamfí) 'star'. The laryngeal spirant /h/ is pronounced with slight friction (but not as much as Ρ /χ/), which is intensified when the spirant is adjacent to another consonant.
A Comparative Study of Yuman Consonantism by Alan Campbell Wares