By Patria Dobbins
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Extra info for 3D Rendering In Computer Graphics
Chapter 9 Phong Shading Phong shading refers to a set of techniques in 3D computer graphics. Phong shading includes a model for the reflection of light from surfaces and a compatible method of estimating pixel colors by interpolating surface normals across rasterized polygons. The model of reflection may also be referred to as the Phong reflection model, Phong illumination or Phong lighting. It may be called Phong shading in the context of pixel shaders or other places where a lighting calculation can be referred to as "shading".
SIGGRAPH 1998, and "A general method for preserving attribute values on simplified meshes" by Cignoni et al. IEEE Visualization '98. The former introduced the idea of storing surface normals directly in a texture, rather than displacements, though it required the low-detail model to be generated by a particular constrained simplification algorithm. ) in a way that is not dependent on how the low-detail model was created. The combination of storing normals in a texture, with the more general creation process is still used by most currently available tools.
Basic normal mapping can be implemented in any hardware that supports palettized textures. The first game console to have specialized normal mapping hardware was the Sega Dreamcast. However, Microsoft's Xbox was the first console to widely use the effect in retail games. Out of the sixth generation consoles, only the PlayStation 2's GPU lacks built-in normal mapping support. Games for the Xbox 360 and the PlayStation 3 rely heavily on normal mapping and are beginning to implement parallax mapping.
3D Rendering In Computer Graphics by Patria Dobbins